The Dragon Ball series has two main timelines (not including the movies, and the continuity of the games and the Super Dragon Ball Heroes promo anime). Both Dragon Ball GT and Dragon Ball Super diverge from the main Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z timeline. There are three sets of Dragon Balls in both timelines, albeit the Earth Dragon Balls are depicted differently in the video games.
In the first Dragon Ball tv series, there is only one complete set of Dragon Balls.
Kami originally created these before Dende enhanced them. They can only grant one desire until Dende becomes Earth’s Guardian and upgrades this set of Dragon Balls, and they can’t give the same wish twice. This statement is a little deceptive because it can and cannot grant the same request more than once.
That is, they can be used to bring individuals back from the dead more than once, but not the same people. Each individual can only be restored once by this set of Dragon Balls, and only if they died naturally. Also, there appeared to be a time restriction for how long a person may be dead. They couldn’t be revived if they had been dead for longer than a year.
This limit was eliminated after Dende updated the Dragon Balls, however Shenron couldn’t entirely rebuild their bodies when they were revived if they had been dead for more than a year, which is why Frieza was revived in pieces (because Trunks sliced him into pieces before killing him). Also, the ‘only revived once’ restriction may have been eliminated.
The number of wishes has also been increased to three, but if one of them is used to revive a group of people, it counts as two wishes, reducing the number of desires to two.
These Dragon Balls were separated from one enormous Dragon Ball, according to Master Roshi, however when Kami was unveiled, it was revealed that he made them. They are scattered around the Earth after being utilized and cannot be used again for a year (365 Earth days). Shenron is summoned by these Dragon Balls.
Dragon Ball GT
In GT, we are told that these Dragon Balls are only intended to be used once every century at the most, but the Dragon Team (also known as the Z-Fighters and their friends and family) misused them, causing them to be overloaded with negative energy and cracking as a consequence.
When the Dragon Team attempted to use them when they were broken, they were only successful in calling forth the Black Smoke Shenron version of Shenron.
After this, Black Smoke Shenron disintegrated into the Shadow Dragons, which Goku was tasked with vanquishing
and the Dragon Balls darkened.
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Dragon Ball Heroes
In the video game continuity, specifically in Dragon Ball Heroes, an alternate version of Earth’s Dragon Balls, are corrupted by the Demon Gods with the aide of Xeno Dende, becoming the Dark Dragon Balls.
After they were formed, they were dispersed throughout time and space, and each merged with a different evil monster, such as Frieza,
to gain further strength before they could be deployed. Once all of them are collected, rather of calling upon Shenron, they call upon Dark Shenron.
After fulfilling a single wish, they are capable of producing a greater number of evil Shadow Dragons than the Dragon Balls found on Earth are in GT.
Dragon Ball Z
In Z, we are introduced to the Namekian Dragon Balls.
Dragon Balls were made by Elder Guru. They couldn’t resuscitate someone who died naturally and could only restore one person per desire. I’m not sure if “dead less than a year” was a limit.
These Dragon Balls came from a Super Dragon Ball in Dragon Ball Super.
It’s possible that the origin of the Namekian Dragon Balls was passed down in the Dragon Clan (the clan of Namekians ).
Kami remembered it when creating his own set on Earth (despite losing all memories not related to Dragon Balls. Including his own name before he expelled evil from his body, creating Piccolo).
After being used, Dragon Balls are spread across their creator’s planet (usually Namek or New Namek) and cannot be used again for a Namekian year, or 130 Earth days. Dragon Balls call Porunga.
Dragon Ball Super
In Dragon Ball Super, we are given our first look at the Super Dragon Balls, which were developed by Zarama or Zalama (not much is known about him).
The Four Star Super Dragon Ball is represented by the planet-like structure in the middle that is riddled with craters. It became known as the Nameless Planet after being obliterated by asteroid fragments. The potential uses for these Dragon Balls are essentially endless. After being used, it takes the same amount of time for them to recharge, which is equivalent to the lifespan of a cockroach, which is around one year (365 days on Earth), exactly like the Dragon Balls on Earth. These call forth Super Shenron, a being that is exceedingly enormous. He was so enormous that whole universes could be contained within him.
When he was summoned following the conclusion of the Tournament of Destroyers, he was called forth around everyone there; hence, they were all contained inside him, and a more diminutive form of him materialized close by.
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Dragon Ball Super(manga only so far)
In the Granolah the Survivor Arc of the Dragon Ball Super manga, we are introduced to a new set of Dragon Balls on Planet Cereal. Unlike all previous sets of Dragon Balls, this set only contains two balls, and they do not stay inert for a year after being used.
These were made by a Namekian who was exiled there as a child, much like the Nameless Namekian (Son of Katas) was exiled to Earth when he was a child. Monaito is the name of this particular Namekian.
This set summons a dragon named Toronbo.
Dragon Ball GT (again)
The Black Star Dragon Balls first appear in the Dragon Ball GT series, which was created before Super but takes place after Super.
These were created by the Nameless Namekian (also known as the Son of Katas) before he split into Piccolo and Kami.
Because the Nameless Namekian didn’t exist anymore until Piccolo and Kami came back during the Android Saga of Z, the Dragon Radar never picked them up.
If these Dragon Balls aren’t returned within a year, the planet they were used on will explode. Positive energy when not used likely cancels out negative energy when used.
Like the newer set of Cereallian Dragon Balls, these don’t stop working after being used, so they can be picked up and used again right away.
However, they are scattered all over the universe (or the galaxy according to the FUNimation dub). Just like the Super Dragon Balls, these can make any wish come true. Ultimate Shenron, who is basically a red version of Shenron, is called by these Balls (but much more powerful).
This Shenron is so powerful, that only collecting them again, and making another wish can permanently reverse a previous wish. Although, Super Saiyan 4 is powerful enough to temporarily reverse the wish that turned Goku into a kid.
Source: SSJ QUiNnY
I really hope that my response was helpful.
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